Food Hygiene

Posts Tagged ‘foodborne diseases

Food Safety Encyclopedia

With the world’s growing population, the provision of a safe, nutritious and wholesome food supply for all has become a major challenge. To achieve this, effective risk management based on sound science and unbiased information is required by all stakeholders, including the food industry, governments and consumers themselves. In addition, the globalization of the food supply requires the harmonization of policies and standards based on a common understanding of food safety among authorities in countries around the world. With some 280 chapters, the Encyclopedia of Food Safety provides unbiased and concise overviews which form in total a comprehensive coverage of a broad range of food safety topics, which may be grouped under the following general categories: History and basic sciences that support food safety; Foodborne diseases, including surveillance and investigation; Foodborne hazards, including microbiological and chemical agents; Substances added to food, both directly and indirectly; Food technologies, including the latest developments; Food commodities, including their potential hazards and controls; Food safety management systems, including their elements and the roles of stakeholders. The Encyclopedia provides a platform for experts from the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment to share and learn from state-of-the art expertise with the rest of the food safety community.

Yasmine Motajemi, Gerald Moy and Ewen Tood, eds, Elsevier, London, 2014

Preventive Strategy Against Infectious Diarrhea – A Holistic Approach

Motarjemi M, Steffen R, Binder HJ (2012) Gastroenterology, 143:516-519

This Comment from the Editor calls for an integrated strategy involving an interdisciplinary and mutlisector approach by world public health authorities, including WHO and UNICEF, to combat diarrheal disease morbidity through their policy and field interventions that explicitly acknowledges the role food safety in presenting such diseases.  The authors note that education is a central point of all interventions, be it through awareness campaign (e.g. the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food), training of health professionals on the job, and/or education of medication and public health students.

Community-Based Intervention Study of Food Safety Practices in Rural Community Households of Cambodia

Ms Frances Warnock, WHO Consultant Food Safety Education
Submitted 3 December 2007,

Between July 2007 and November 2007 the writer undertook three Missions to Cambodia
to provide technical assistance and support to the National Centre for Health Promotion
(NCHP) Cambodia in conducting a community-based food safety intervention study
involving rural community households. The project built upon earlier work conducting
food safety training workshops for forty Village Health Support Group (VHSG)
volunteer health workers from the Provinces of Kampong Chnnang and Kampong Thom.
The current project, which was conducted over five months and in three phases, made
further progress towards gaining a sound understanding of high risk food handling
practices in rural households. Information gathered from a baseline study engaging
VHSG volunteers to observe food safety practices in 200 rural households in villages of
Kampong Chnnang and Kampong Thom, formed the basis for developing an evidenced based
approach to food safety education aimed at behaviour change.
Specific activities included: training workshops followed by observation of household
food safety practices and completing a food safety checklist tool (baseline assessment and
final evaluation); taking time-temperature measurements of selected high risk
foods/dishes; using baseline assessment to develop key food safety messages and produce
a food safety information poster specifically targeting rural households; dissemination of
information materials by VHSG volunteers to rural village households and conducting
small group education sessions aimed at changing high risk food safety behaviours; and
focus group feedback workshops with VHSG volunteers to assist with identifying factors
that contributed to (enablers), or hindered (barriers) behaviour modification.
The model process developed in this study for food safety education in rural communities
of Cambodia involving: (1) Mobilization of VHSG volunteers to conduct education in
their villages; and (2) Providing the new food safety information poster targeting rural
households (modified WHO Five Keys to Safer Food messages); proved to be highly
effective in improving household food safety practices. It is strongly recommended that
this model process for food safety education in rural communities be adopted throughout
Cambodia. Adequate financial resources are required to continue and expand this
important work. It is recommended that funding be sought from both Government and
International Agencies to ensure food safety education in rural communities is given
priority it rightly deserves.
Through sustained effort and action at the grassroots level in rural communities, there is
potential to mobilize community action and improve household food safety practices,
thereby reducing the burden of foodborne illness in Cambodia.
“There is a wealth of messengers in communities with the power to draw attention and
foster a supportive environment. When used with the mass media these voices can put
healthy behaviour on the national public agenda”. (Source: Mobilizing For Healthy
Behaviour, WHO 2002).

Written by geraldmoy

February 12, 2012 at 4:05 pm

Risks of Salmonellosis and Staphylococcal Food Poisoning From Pakistani Milk-based Confectioneries

Teufel P et al. J of Food Protection, 55(8):588-594 (1992)


Hazards of milk-based products wee conducted in three confectionery manufacturing shops 9in a city in Pakistan.  The incoming khoa (heat-concentrated milk product having a water activity of approximately 0.97) was initially contaminated with staphylococci and contained enterotoxin.  The confectionery was subsequently cooked to temperatures that would be lethal to staphylococci, but staphylococci were often found in high numbers in the finished products.  Recontamination occurred during handling.  Khoa-filled confectionery and confectionery made from renin-processed cheese were contaminated by salmonellae.  The contaminants reached the products either during cooling or handling after cooking.  Multiplication occurred in the warm environment of the shop and may continue in products having high water activity during transport and within retail outlets.  Critical control points are source of ingredients (particularly khoa), formulation, cooking (except for preformed enterotoxins), cooling and cold storage.  Milk-based products of the types evaluated pose a high risk of causing foodborne illness.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 6:29 pm

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Vending Operations in a Mountain Resort Town in Pakistan

Bryan FL et al. J Food Protection 55(9):701-707 (1992)

Hazard analyses (which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of food throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of concern) were conducted on vending operations of chicken, rice, pulse patties, and ice cream in a resort town .  Salmonellae were isolated from ground meat, chicken flesh (from all operations surveyed), cutting boards, egg shells (eggs used in pulse patties), and buffalo milk (used for milk shakes).  Greater than 100,000 coliform bacteria were isolated from raw milk, ice-cream mixes and products, and pulse patty mix.  Time-temperature exposure during cooking was adequate to kill salmonellae, but there were potentials for recontamination from cutting boards, knives, and hands of the vendor.  Buffalo milk was held in a freezer and not boiled by the vendor as is usual in Pakistani homes to retard spoilage.  Hence, because pathogens were not killed, milk shakes were a health risk.  Pulse patties were not always thoroughly cooked, so pathogens could have survived.  Holding stacks of them on the griddle for several hours would have allowed germination and growth of bacterial spores and growth of resulting cells.  Health agency personnel in developing countries, vendors, and consumers of these foods need to be informed of the hazards and appropriate preventive measures.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 6:18 pm

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Vending Operations at a Railway Station and Bus Station in Pakistan

Bryan FL et al. J Food Protection 55(7):534-541 (1992)

Hazard analyses (which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of food throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of concern) were conducted on vending operations at a railway and bus station in a large city in Pakistan.  Commonly prepared foods which were surveyed included: rice, pulses, chick peas, ground meat and potato mixtures, meat stew, and okra.  Temperatures were measured and samples were collected from a variety of other foods.  Large numbers (10,000 – 10,000,000) of Clostridium perfringens were isolated from samples of pulses, ground meat dishes, and chick peas collected during display, 3 to 10 hours after cooking.  Aerobic colony counts were also high in these and other foods that held for several hours, unless hot, at temperatures above 55 C throughout the holding periods or periodic reheating practiced (which was done by a few vendors).  Cooking was usually thorough, but spores survived which germinated during the display period. High temperature holding or periodic reheating maintained safe foods, and hence, are critical control points for these operations.  Education about these matter 9ought t9o be directed at health and transportation authorities, vendors, and the public.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 5:14 pm

Critical control points for foods prepared in households in which babies had salmonellosis

Michanie S Bryan FL Alvarez P Olivo AB.  Int J Food Microbiol. 5:337-354 (1987)


Sixteen babies undergoing reehydration therapy were examined for enteric pathogens.  Salmonella agona was isolated from four, Samonella enteritidis from two, Shiegella boydii from one: neither Campylobacter nor Yersinia were recovered from any of the babies.  Three househoolds in which Samonella group B (S. aghona) was isolated from the babies were selected for hazard analysis of food preparation practices.  In one house, S. agona was recovered from the feces of the mother and gransmother of the baby and from a kitchen knife, a blender, malagueta (spice) used to flavor milk, a mop and flies.  All foods were cooked to 100 C and many were eaten a short time afterwards.  Some foods were held at ambient room temperature until the arrival of an absent family member or kept overnight.  During the holding interval, large numbers of microorganism accumulated in the foods, often exceeding 10, 000,000/gh. Bacillus cereus was recovered from 7 of 16 samples of cooked foods.  The sample of  “moro” (rice and beans mixture) had a count of 1,500,000/g.  Staphyl9ococcus aureus was isloated for 11 smaples; a sample of milk had a count of great than 100,000/g.  Critical control points for milk formula were heating, holding after heating, cleaning and disinfecting bottles, nipples and pans used to store milk, and utensils used to dispense the milk.


Critical Control Points of Street-vended Foods in the Dominican Republic

Bryan FL et al J Food Protection, 51(5):373-383 (1988)


Hazard analyses were conducted at four steet-vending stands in the Dominican Republic.  Temperatures of food were measured during cooking, displaying (holding), and reheating (when done).  Samples were taken at each step of the operation qand at 5 to 6 hour intervals during display.  Food usually attained temperatures that exceeded 90 C at the geometric center during cooking and reheating.  A three of the stands, food (e.g. fish, chicken, pork pieces_ were fried and held until sold.  Leftovers were held overnight at ambient temperatures in the home of the vendor or in locked compartment of the stand.  They were usually reheated early in the morning and displayed until sold.  During the interval for holding, aerobic mesophilic counts progressively increased with time from about 1,000 after cooking to between 1000,000 to 1,000,000,000/g.  The higher counts were usually associated with holding overnight.  Escherichia coli (in water, milk, and cheese samples), Bacillus cereus (in bean and rice samples) and Clostridium perfringens (in meat, chicken and bean samples) were isolated, but usually in numbers less that 1,000/g.  At the other stand, foods (e.g. beans, rice, meat and chicken) were cooked just before serving as complete meals.  There were no leftovers.  This operation was less hazardous, although there were many sanitary deficiencies.  Recommendations for prevention and control of microbial hazards (mainly reducing holding time, periodic reheating and requesting reheating just before purchasing) are given.  The need and suggestions of implementing education activities to alert and inform those concerned about hazards and preventive measures are presented



Hazard Analyses of Foods Prepared by Inhabitants Along the Peruvian Amazon River

Bryan FL et al., J Food Protection 51(4): 293-302 (1988)


Hazard analyses of food preparation practices were conducted in two household in Indiana (a settlement along the Peruvian Amazon River), in a household in a cluster of about a half dozen houses up river, and in three households in Belen (a district near Iquitos), Peru.  These analysis consisted of watching all steps of preparation, recording temperatures throughout these steps, and collecting samples of the food and testing for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms.   Foods prepared included rice, plantains, yuca, dry fish, freash fish, beef, and chicken.  During cooking, foods attained tempertures of at least 93.3 C; they usually boiled.  Such time-temperature exposure would kill vegetative forms of foodborne pathogens, but not their heat-resistent spores.  When cooked foods w3ere leftover, thy were kept either on tables or on the unheated stoves or grills on which they were cooked.  During this interval, at the prevailing ambient temperature and high humidity of the jungle region, conditions were such that considerable microbial growth could occur.  time of exposure, however, limited counts to 100,000 to 1,000,000 level.  In the evening, foods were only mildly reheated, if reheated at all, so temperatures were not attained in the center regions of the food that would killed microorganisms that had multiplied during the holding period.  Hence, the primary critical control point is holding between cooking and serving, cooking and reheating are critical control points also.



Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 3:07 pm

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Food Preparation in Homes in Which Persons Had Diarrhea in Zambia

Schmitt R Bryan FL Jermini M ChilufyaEN Hakalima AT Zyuulu M Mfume E Mwandwe C Mullungushi E Lubasi D. Journal of Food Protection, 60(2): 161-171(1997)

Following identification of some cases of diarrhea from persons who either sought treatment at a health clinic that served two townships near a large city in Zambia or got water from a deep protected well in one of the townships, hazard analyses were done of food preparation and storage practices at 17 homes. Samples of foods at various stages of preparation, foods held overnight, and drinking water were collected from the homes of the ill persons and were tested for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms. Salmonella was isolated from a sample of leftover kapenta (cooked dried minnows). Thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli were isolated from water from shallow wells and a treated community supply. Although thermtolerant coliforms were not recovered from the protected well site, they were isolated from a sample of water collected in a home that used this supply. Several leftover foods, however, contained much larger populations of thermotolerant coliforms and larger populations of aerobic mesophilic organisms than the water. Furthermore, leftover nshima (boiled and whipped corn meal) and porridge contained large populations (>105) of Bacillus cereus per gram. Foods during cooking attained temperatures that would have been lethal to vegetative cells of foodborne pathogens. After cooking, they were subjected to time-temperature abuse during holding until eaten or while held overnight.

Written by geraldmoy

January 11, 2012 at 2:37 pm


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