Food Hygiene

Archive for the ‘Interventions and Evaluations’ Category

Preventive Strategy Against Infectious Diarrhea – A Holistic Approach

Motarjemi M, Steffen R, Binder HJ (2012) Gastroenterology, 143:516-519

This Comment from the Editor calls for an integrated strategy involving an interdisciplinary and mutlisector approach by world public health authorities, including WHO and UNICEF, to combat diarrheal disease morbidity through their policy and field interventions that explicitly acknowledges the role food safety in presenting such diseases.  The authors note that education is a central point of all interventions, be it through awareness campaign (e.g. the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food), training of health professionals on the job, and/or education of medication and public health students.

Community-Based Intervention Study of Food Safety Practices in Rural Community Households of Cambodia

Ms Frances Warnock, WHO Consultant Food Safety Education
Submitted 3 December 2007, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/consumer/Cambodia_Dec07.pdf

Between July 2007 and November 2007 the writer undertook three Missions to Cambodia
to provide technical assistance and support to the National Centre for Health Promotion
(NCHP) Cambodia in conducting a community-based food safety intervention study
involving rural community households. The project built upon earlier work conducting
food safety training workshops for forty Village Health Support Group (VHSG)
volunteer health workers from the Provinces of Kampong Chnnang and Kampong Thom.
The current project, which was conducted over five months and in three phases, made
further progress towards gaining a sound understanding of high risk food handling
practices in rural households. Information gathered from a baseline study engaging
VHSG volunteers to observe food safety practices in 200 rural households in villages of
Kampong Chnnang and Kampong Thom, formed the basis for developing an evidenced based
approach to food safety education aimed at behaviour change.
Specific activities included: training workshops followed by observation of household
food safety practices and completing a food safety checklist tool (baseline assessment and
final evaluation); taking time-temperature measurements of selected high risk
foods/dishes; using baseline assessment to develop key food safety messages and produce
a food safety information poster specifically targeting rural households; dissemination of
information materials by VHSG volunteers to rural village households and conducting
small group education sessions aimed at changing high risk food safety behaviours; and
focus group feedback workshops with VHSG volunteers to assist with identifying factors
that contributed to (enablers), or hindered (barriers) behaviour modification.
The model process developed in this study for food safety education in rural communities
of Cambodia involving: (1) Mobilization of VHSG volunteers to conduct education in
their villages; and (2) Providing the new food safety information poster targeting rural
households (modified WHO Five Keys to Safer Food messages); proved to be highly
effective in improving household food safety practices. It is strongly recommended that
this model process for food safety education in rural communities be adopted throughout
Cambodia. Adequate financial resources are required to continue and expand this
important work. It is recommended that funding be sought from both Government and
International Agencies to ensure food safety education in rural communities is given
priority it rightly deserves.
Through sustained effort and action at the grassroots level in rural communities, there is
potential to mobilize community action and improve household food safety practices,
thereby reducing the burden of foodborne illness in Cambodia.
“There is a wealth of messengers in communities with the power to draw attention and
foster a supportive environment. When used with the mass media these voices can put
healthy behaviour on the national public agenda”. (Source: Mobilizing For Healthy
Behaviour, WHO 2002).

Written by geraldmoy

February 12, 2012 at 4:05 pm

Community-Based Intervention Study of Food Safety Practices in Rural Community Households of Lao PDR

Warnock F.  WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila http://www.who.int/foodsafety/consumer/Laos_Dec07.pdf (2007)

Between July 2007 and December 2007 the writer undertook three missions to Lao PDR to provide technical assistance and support to food safety personnel in the Department of Food and Drugs (FDD), Ministry of Health Laos, to conduct a community-based food safety intervention study in rural communities. The project built upon earlier work conducting food safety training workshops for Lao Women Union representatives from Phonehong District, Vientiane Province.

The current project, which was conducted over five months and in three phases, made further progress towards gaining a sound understanding of high risk food handling practices in rural households. Information gathered from a baseline study engaging Lao Women to observe food safety practices in 180 village households in Phonehong District formed the basis for developing an evidenced-based approach to food safety education aimed at behaviour change.

Specific activities included: training workshops followed by observation of household food safety practices and completing a food safety checklist tool (baseline assessment and final evaluation); taking time-temperature measurements of selected high risk foods/dishes; using the baseline assessment to develop key food safety messages and produce a food safety information poster specifically targeting rural households; dissemination of information materials to rural village households and Lao Women conducting small group education sessions; and a focus group feedback workshop with Lao Women and FDD to explore next steps in progressing this activity.

This food safety intervention study in rural households in Phonehong District has led to a better understanding of high risk food safety practices, and in particular, identified the consumption of raw meats and raw fish products to be a common practice among rural people and a significant problem. It has highlighted the importance of adopting an evidence-based approach to food safety education and not simply adapt/ translate existing information materials. Culture and traditional habits must be considered in food safety education programs if there is to be any impact on changing behaviours.
Involvement of the Lao Women’s Union as a key partner to provide food safety education in rural communities, with training and technical support provided by FDD, has demonstrated to be quite a successful model. It is recommended that this collaborative approach continue and the education activity expanded to other Provinces of Lao PDR in 2008.

It is recognised that broad behavioural change requires years of consistent effort to achieve. But through sustained effort and action at the grassroots level in rural communities there is potential to mobilize community action and improve household food safety practices, thereby reducing the burden of foodborne illness in Lao PDR.

Financial resources are required to support this important food safety education work, and it recommended that funding be sought from the Government and International Agencies to ensure this important work continues in rural communities of Laos.

Written by geraldmoy

February 10, 2012 at 10:07 am

The Effect of Handwashing at Recommended Times with Water Alone and With Soap on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: An Observational Study

Luby SP, Halder AK, Huda T, Unicomb L, Johnston RB (2011) The Effect of Handwashing at Recommended Times with Water Alone and With Soap on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: An Observational Study. PLoS Med 8(6): e1001052. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001052

 

Background

Standard public health interventions to improve hand hygiene in communities with high levels of child mortality encourage community residents to wash their hands with soap at five separate key times, a recommendation that would require mothers living in impoverished households to typically wash hands with soap more than ten times per day. We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea.

Methods and Findings

Fieldworkers conducted a 5-hour structured observation and a cross-sectional survey in 347 households from 50 villages across rural Bangladesh in 2007. For the subsequent 2 years, a trained community resident visited each of the enrolled households every month and collected information on the occurrence of diarrhea in the preceding 48 hours among household residents under the age of 5 years. Compared with children living in households where persons prepared food without washing their hands, children living in households where the food preparer washed at least one hand with water only (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57–1.05), washed both hands with water only (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.51–0.89), or washed at least one hand with soap (OR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.19–0.47) had less diarrhea. In households where residents washed at least one hand with soap after defecation, children had less diarrhea (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.26–0.77). There was no significant association between handwashing with or without soap before feeding a child, before eating, or after cleaning a child’s anus who defecated and subsequent child diarrhea.

Conclusions

These observations suggest that handwashing before preparing food is a particularly important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea.

Written by geraldmoy

July 5, 2011 at 8:06 am

Ensuring and Promoting Food Safety During the 2008 Beijing Olympics

Moy G Han F and Chen J (2010) Ensuring and promoting food safety during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease; 7(8): 981-83.

In another study involving the WHO Five Keys to Safe Food, a food safety promotion campaign was carried out in conjunction with the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[1] The Olympic Games presented a special opportunity to develop an integrated health promotion campaign for Beijing residents by linking the games to healthy choices about how to keep food safe, what to eat to be healthy, and how to keep moving to stay in good shape. Five key behavior choices for each of the three topics were identified and presented under the rubric of ‘‘The 3 Fives’’. For food safety, the five key behaviors included (1) keep clean, (2) cook thoroughly, (3) separate raw and cooked food, (4) keep food at safe temperatures, either hot or cold, and (5) choose foods for safety. Launched in March 2008, the campaign included newspapers, radio and television.  Dissemination of  ‘‘The 3 Fives’’ materials in Chinese, including 1.2 million brochures and 200,000 posters, were made throughout Beijing. A ‘‘knowledge, attitudes, and practices’’ study (n=423) to assess the impact of ‘‘The 3 Fives’’ campaign on Beijing residents was conducted by the Beijing Food Administration with support from WHO.  In addition, a pilot program was conducted at community (n=40) to explain in more detail ‘‘The 3 Fives’’ and to answer questions. The results indicated that the messages related to food safety could be further reinforced by such educational interventions to achieve behavioral change. Based on an assessment of various indicators, these efforts were successful in promoting safer food for Beijing residents. The authors concluded that food safety experiences of the 2008 Beijing Olympics might be usefully applied to major sporting events and mass gatherings in the future.


Written by geraldmoy

June 14, 2011 at 8:05 pm

Food safety in the domestic environment: the effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks

Nauta MJ, Fischer AR, van Asselt ED, de Jong AE, Frewer LJ, de Jonge R (2008)

Food safety in the domestic environment: the effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks. Risk Analysis; 28(1):179-92.

 

Abstract

The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information interventions were designed and tested on participant motivation and intentions to cook more safely. Based on these self-reported measures, the intervention supported by the emotion “disgust” was selected as the most promising information intervention. Its effect on microbial cross-contamination was tested by recruiting a set of participants who prepared a salad with chicken breast fillet carrying a known amount of tracer bacteria. The amount of tracer that could be recovered from the salad revealed the transfer and survival of Campylobacter and was used as a measure of hygiene. This was introduced into an existing risk model on Campylobacter in the Netherlands to assess the effect of the information intervention both at the level of exposure and the level of human disease risk. We showed that the information intervention supported by the emotion “disgust” alone had no measurable effect on the health risk. However, when a behavioral cue was embedded within the instruction for the salad preparation, the risk decreased sharply. It is shown that a transdisciplinary approach, involving research on risk perception, microbiology, and risk assessment, is successful in evaluating the efficacy of an information intervention in terms of human health risks. The approach offers a novel tool for science-based risk management in the area of food safety.

Written by geraldmoy

June 11, 2011 at 8:09 pm

Summary of implementation of the 5 keys to safer food in Latin America

The WHO Five Keys to Safer Food

 

Prevention of foodborne disease: Five keys to safer food

 

WHO
“Sometimes very simple messages and measures can have a big impact on health protection. These Five Keys to Safer Food have already contributed to the prevention of foodborne illness and deserve to be communicated more widely.”

Margaret Chan
Director-General

Ref. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/en/

Unsafe food causes many acute and life-long diseases, ranging from diarrhoeal diseases to various forms of cancer. WHO estimates that foodborne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases taken together kill about 2.2 million people annually, 1.9 million of them children.

Foodborne diseases and threats to food safety constitute a growing public health problem and WHO’s mission is to assist Member States to strengthen their programmes for improving the safety of food all the way from production to final consumption.

In May 2010 the World Health Assembly approved a new resolution on food safety: Advancing food safety initiatives (WHA63.3). This resolution will be used to update the current WHO Global Strategy for Food Safety.

Ref. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/en/

 

In response to the increasing number of requests from countries to assist in strengthening their food safety education programmes for the prevention of foodborne diseases, FOS/WHO has developed a Standard Manual on the Five Keys to Safer Food which provides guidance on how to both educate and promote adoption of safe food handling behaviors in different environments, where food are produced, prepared, and consumed.

 

In the Region of the Americas, trough out a project supported by the DFID Agency the WHO Standard Manual was tested in primary schools at urban and rural areas.  As a result, a technical team comprised of PAHO/WHO technical Officers; Officers from the Institute of Nutrition for Central America  and Panama (INCAP) based in Guatemala with counterparts form the ministries of education and health developed a series of three manuals:  a. A theoretical manual  entitled: “Five Keys to Safer Food”, b) A manual  of activities for teachers on how to keep food safe, and c) a manual for the parents and teachers association on how to formulate a plan for safe food and water at schools.

 

1 Guatemala:

In follow-up to phase II of the project, the workshops were held in the months of April and may of

training teachers of four schools in the developed contents of the Manual 5 Keys to keep food safe. and use of additional tools. Also, is provided them materials to every teacher and a proposal for the implementation thereof with students over the next 2 months of training. They summarized in table No.1  teachers who were trained in Guatemala project.

Table No. 1

The months of September and October again visited the schools for tests

end caps for hygiene in the manipulation of food to students and teachers, in order to

measure the impact on changes in behaviors regarding the subject. During these visits, teachers

they were parents to give a talk by the content learned 5 keys and

for both, inform parents so that they can at home reinforce what students

they learned in the classroom. Currently test CAPs for analysis and completion data is raising of the Study, as well as final report of the pilot project in Guatemala.

 

2 Honduras:

The first half of 2007, introduced draft 5 keys to the authorities of theHealthy schools (PES) programme of the Secretaría de Estado del Despacho de la Primera Dama de HondurasSecretariat of State of the Office of the first lady of Honduras,

those who at that time agreed to participate in the process of validation of the tools at centres escolares the program It supports. To follow up on what was agreed, this year received

official communications of Honduras confirming the interest and requesting technical support to initiate the transfer process ESCUELA & DOCENTES TRAINED

E.O.R.M. Meetings, 8 Chiquimula

E.O.R.M. The Bongo, the Estor, Izabal 8

E.O.R.M. Rosario, San Juan, Sacatepeques 11

E.O.R.M. Republic of Colombia, 15 Guatemala

Institute of nutrition of Central America and Panama.INCAP – 2

from the experience.

August held a workshop where as a result of this was achieved 😦to) form a team 5

Key inter-agency with PES, Secretary of education, Ministry of public health officials

World Food Programme, the INCAP and PAHO, who socializarán the internal project of their

institutions as well as they will monitor the process in schools, and(b) the plan was developed for

work to begin the process of implementation of the initiative, which is already running.

The project was developed with the Ministry of education and health, who have reviewed the

Tools gave its endorsement to adapt to the country. Currently ongoing adaptation

tools 5 keys according to the methodology and approach presented by the Curricular design

National basic education of the Ministry of education for its implementation in schools

serviced by PES, still are a total of approximately 16,000 in cyberspace.

In addition, the initiative has been sector health using the materials to train to

women in dining rooms Marcala municipality staff tourism and health in the region

Metropolitan Tegucigalpa.

3 El Salvador:

Was coordinated together with the Regional programme for food security and nutrition for

Central. PRESANCA – start the implementation of the initiative in schools that

they have a school feeding programme in the municipalities of San Fernando and Arambala in the

Department of Morazán,. To this end, the PRESANCA funded the printing of 500

copies of the materials and tools training workshops

educational.

The work plan was developed to coordinate the actions of the implementation of the initiative and

July training workshops were conducted in the contents of the Manual.5 Keys to keep

food safe. and complementary tools for teachers in the schools of

the municipalities mentioned above, as well as to the equipment monitoring quality and staff of the

Ministry of health.

During the workshops trained 50 teachers in the

schools, 28 pedagogical advisors team of

Monitoring the quality of the Ministry of education and staff

of the Ministry of health of the Department of Morazán.

Within the activities of the work plan is make a

CAPS study in schools in both municipalities

What are the CAPs Forms validation for to start the next year the study.

Institute of nutrition of Central America and Panama.INCAP – 3

4. Presentation of the 5 keys in Guatemala experience in the V meeting of the Commission

Pan American food safety (COPAIA) within the framework of the 15th meeting

Inter-American ministerial on health and Agriculture (RIMSA):

At the meeting of the COPAIA on 10 June in Rio de Janeiro, Dr. Ludwig Werner Ovalle

Cabrera, Deputy Health Guatemala presented the experience of the pilot project and some

recommendations for cooperation and coordination of actions at national, sub-regional and regional

food safety to implement this initiative. For this purpose cooperation provided

technique for the preparation of the summary of experience and presentation of the same.

5 Edition in the English language of the materials and the pilot project in Guatemala brochure:

Finished editing and diagramming tools 5

Key version in English for use in countries

English-speaking region; as they were printed 1000

copies of the posters and the manual for the School Board.

For transfer of experience to other countries in

Central America and the Latin American region became a brochure

Spanish/English outlining the methodology, achievements and progress of the

Guatemala experience to socialize with other countries to

they may be interested in starting to implement this initiative,

as well as a CD with documents in digital version.

6 Belize:

Be supported Belize sending 200 posters 5 keys as well

as with brochures-summary of the experience, to start in the

2009 the transfer to the country.

From 24 to 26 February, the INCAP attended the workshop. Train the

Trainers Programme on the Five Keys to Safer Food. organized by the

WHO and PAHO country office in the country, which was held in the city

of Belize with the participation of 32 representatives from the Department

public health inspectors of Ministry health MOH, health educators of

Agriculture and tourism in the country officers.

INCAP presented here experience it has developed in Guatemala and Honduras for the

adaptation of this initiative in primary schools, as well as the materials obtained as

product of this experience. Each participant was given a digital copy with tools

in both languages as well as the summary.

 

Reference: PAHO/WHO- Institute of nutrition of Central America and Panama. INCAP – 1

Report of AVANCES in the REGION CENTROAMERICANA of theINICIATIVE the 5 keys to safer food.

Written by geraldmoy

May 30, 2011 at 2:08 pm