Food Hygiene

Archive for the ‘Problem Areas/Points of Action’ Category

Preventive Strategy Against Infectious Diarrhea – A Holistic Approach

Motarjemi M, Steffen R, Binder HJ (2012) Gastroenterology, 143:516-519

This Comment from the Editor calls for an integrated strategy involving an interdisciplinary and mutlisector approach by world public health authorities, including WHO and UNICEF, to combat diarrheal disease morbidity through their policy and field interventions that explicitly acknowledges the role food safety in presenting such diseases.  The authors note that education is a central point of all interventions, be it through awareness campaign (e.g. the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food), training of health professionals on the job, and/or education of medication and public health students.

Global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Furst T, Keise, J and Utzinger J. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 12(3): 210 – 221, March 2012
Published Online: 21 November 2011

Food-borne trematodiases are a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by liver, lung, and intestinal parasitic fluke infections. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2010 study) and a WHO initiative, we assessed the global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis, as expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for the year 2005.
We systematically searched electronic databases for reports about human food-borne trematodiasis without language restriction, between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2008. We used a broad search strategy with a combination of search terms and parasite and disease names. The initial search results were then screened on the basis of title, abstract, and, finally, full text. Relevant quantitative and qualitative data on human prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of food-borne trematodiasis were extracted. On the basis of available information on pathological and clinical appearance, we developed simplified disease models and did meta-analyses on the proportions and odds ratios of specified sequelae and estimated the global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis.
We screened 33 921 articles and identified 181 eligible studies containing quantitative information for inclusion in the meta-analyses. About 56·2 million people were infected with food-borne trematodes in 2005: 7·9 million had severe sequelae and 7158 died, most from cholangiocarcinoma and cerebral infection. Taken together, we estimate that the global burden of food-borne trematodiasis was 665 352 DALYs (lower estimate 479 496 DALYs; upper estimate 859 051 DALYs). Furthermore, knowledge gaps in crucial epidemiological disease parameters and methodological features for estimating the global burden of parasitic diseases that are characterised by highly focal spatial occurrence and scarce and patchy information were highlighted.
Despite making conservative estimates, we found that food-borne trematodiases are an important cluster of neglected diseases.
Swiss National Science Foundation; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Written by geraldmoy

March 21, 2012 at 4:57 am

Microbial Contamination of Seven Major Weaning Foods in Nigeria


Oluwafemi F and  Nnanna Ibeh I. J Health Popul Nutr. 29(4): 415–419 (2011)


Five million children aged less than five years die annually due to diarrhoea. The aim of the study was to identify some possible contributing factors for persistent diarrhoea. Seven weaning foods, including a locally-made food, were evaluated by estimating the microbial load using the most probable number method and aflatoxin levels (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, and AFB2) by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection of fluorescence.

The results showed that the locally-made weaning food had the highest microbial count (2,000 cfu/g) and faecal streptococcal count (25 cfu/g). Moulds isolated were mainly Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. glaucus, Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. The home-made weaning food recorded the highest fungal count (6,500 cfu/g). AFM1 of the weaning foods was 4.6-530 ng/mL. One weaning food had AFB1 level of 4,806 ng/g. Aflatoxin metabolites, apart from AFM1 and AFB1 present in the weaning foods, were AFG1 and AFG2. There were low microbial counts in commercial weaning foods but had high levels of aflatoxins (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, AFB1, and AFB2).

Growth and development of the infant is rapid, and it is, thus, possible that exposure to aflatoxins in weaning foods might have significant health effects.

Written by geraldmoy

February 7, 2012 at 3:02 pm

Critical control points for foods prepared in households in which babies had salmonellosis

Michanie S Bryan FL Alvarez P Olivo AB.  Int J Food Microbiol. 5:337-354 (1987)


Sixteen babies undergoing reehydration therapy were examined for enteric pathogens.  Salmonella agona was isolated from four, Samonella enteritidis from two, Shiegella boydii from one: neither Campylobacter nor Yersinia were recovered from any of the babies.  Three househoolds in which Samonella group B (S. aghona) was isolated from the babies were selected for hazard analysis of food preparation practices.  In one house, S. agona was recovered from the feces of the mother and gransmother of the baby and from a kitchen knife, a blender, malagueta (spice) used to flavor milk, a mop and flies.  All foods were cooked to 100 C and many were eaten a short time afterwards.  Some foods were held at ambient room temperature until the arrival of an absent family member or kept overnight.  During the holding interval, large numbers of microorganism accumulated in the foods, often exceeding 10, 000,000/gh. Bacillus cereus was recovered from 7 of 16 samples of cooked foods.  The sample of  “moro” (rice and beans mixture) had a count of 1,500,000/g.  Staphyl9ococcus aureus was isloated for 11 smaples; a sample of milk had a count of great than 100,000/g.  Critical control points for milk formula were heating, holding after heating, cleaning and disinfecting bottles, nipples and pans used to store milk, and utensils used to dispense the milk.


Critical Control Points of Street-vended Foods in the Dominican Republic

Bryan FL et al J Food Protection, 51(5):373-383 (1988)


Hazard analyses were conducted at four steet-vending stands in the Dominican Republic.  Temperatures of food were measured during cooking, displaying (holding), and reheating (when done).  Samples were taken at each step of the operation qand at 5 to 6 hour intervals during display.  Food usually attained temperatures that exceeded 90 C at the geometric center during cooking and reheating.  A three of the stands, food (e.g. fish, chicken, pork pieces_ were fried and held until sold.  Leftovers were held overnight at ambient temperatures in the home of the vendor or in locked compartment of the stand.  They were usually reheated early in the morning and displayed until sold.  During the interval for holding, aerobic mesophilic counts progressively increased with time from about 1,000 after cooking to between 1000,000 to 1,000,000,000/g.  The higher counts were usually associated with holding overnight.  Escherichia coli (in water, milk, and cheese samples), Bacillus cereus (in bean and rice samples) and Clostridium perfringens (in meat, chicken and bean samples) were isolated, but usually in numbers less that 1,000/g.  At the other stand, foods (e.g. beans, rice, meat and chicken) were cooked just before serving as complete meals.  There were no leftovers.  This operation was less hazardous, although there were many sanitary deficiencies.  Recommendations for prevention and control of microbial hazards (mainly reducing holding time, periodic reheating and requesting reheating just before purchasing) are given.  The need and suggestions of implementing education activities to alert and inform those concerned about hazards and preventive measures are presented



Hazard Analyses of Foods Prepared by Inhabitants Along the Peruvian Amazon River

Bryan FL et al., J Food Protection 51(4): 293-302 (1988)


Hazard analyses of food preparation practices were conducted in two household in Indiana (a settlement along the Peruvian Amazon River), in a household in a cluster of about a half dozen houses up river, and in three households in Belen (a district near Iquitos), Peru.  These analysis consisted of watching all steps of preparation, recording temperatures throughout these steps, and collecting samples of the food and testing for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms.   Foods prepared included rice, plantains, yuca, dry fish, freash fish, beef, and chicken.  During cooking, foods attained tempertures of at least 93.3 C; they usually boiled.  Such time-temperature exposure would kill vegetative forms of foodborne pathogens, but not their heat-resistent spores.  When cooked foods w3ere leftover, thy were kept either on tables or on the unheated stoves or grills on which they were cooked.  During this interval, at the prevailing ambient temperature and high humidity of the jungle region, conditions were such that considerable microbial growth could occur.  time of exposure, however, limited counts to 100,000 to 1,000,000 level.  In the evening, foods were only mildly reheated, if reheated at all, so temperatures were not attained in the center regions of the food that would killed microorganisms that had multiplied during the holding period.  Hence, the primary critical control point is holding between cooking and serving, cooking and reheating are critical control points also.



Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 3:07 pm

Hazard Analyses of Foods Prepared by Migrants Living in a New Settlement at the Outskirts of Lima, Peru

Bryan FL et al., J Food Protection 51(4): 314-323 (1988)


Hazard analyses of food preparation practices were conducted in three household in a new settlement in the rocky, dusty hillsides at the outskirts of Lima, Peru.  These analysis consisted of watching all steps of preparation, recording temperatures throughout these steps, and collecting samples of the food and testing for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms.l  The residents had migrated from different regions of the country: consequently, they prepared different foods.  These included soya cereal, milk formula, rice and carrots for feeding a baby who had diarrhea, soups, masked potatoes with spinach, carrot and beet salad, cow;s foot soup, beans, rice and mixture of beans and rice.  The temperatures attained were high enough to kill vegetative forms of foodborne pathogens, but not heir spores.  During the interval between cooking in the morning and serving at either lunch or supper time, foods were held either on unheated ranges or in unheated ovens.  This interval was long enough to permit some bacterial multiplication, but apparently not to massive quantities.  Just before the evening meal, food were reheated to temperature that usually exceeded 70 C.  rice, however, was either served cold or if reheated, the center temperature rose a few degrees only.  Critical control points for preparation of family meals are cooking, holding between cooking and serving, and reheating.  Critical control points for milk formula for babies are using recently-boiled water for the formula, cleaning and boiling bottles and nipples, and of particular importance, time of holding at room temperature.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 2:55 pm