Food Hygiene

Archive for the ‘FAO’ Category


A training resource package, including a manual for trainers and posters for stimulating discussions with vendors has been prepared by FAO, based on field experience accumulated in the projects over the last 15 years. These are available in English and French (with a specific focus on Africa), available at: and in Spanish (with a specific focus on Latin America), available at:


Written by geraldmoy

April 17, 2011 at 7:12 pm

Emerging food-borne zoonoses

Rev Sci Tech. 2004 Aug;23(2):513-33.

Emerging food-borne zoonoses.

Schlundt JToyofuku HJansen JHerbst SA.

Food Safety Department, World Health Organization, 20, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.


Diarrhoeal diseases, almost all of which are caused by food-borne or waterborne microbial pathogens, are leading causes of illness and death in less developed countries, killing an estimated 1.9 million people annually at the global level. Even in developed countries, it is estimated that up to one third of the population are affected by microbiological food-borne diseases each year. The majority of the pathogens causing this significant disease burden are now considered to be zoonotic. The occurrence of some of these zoonotic pathogens seems to have increased significantly over recent years. The factors involved in such increases have not been well studied, but they are generally agreed to include changes in animal production systems and in the food production chain. Both types of changes can cause corresponding changes in patterns of exposure to the pathogens and the susceptibility pattern of the human population. This paper will not attempt a more in-depth analysis of such factors. The authors briefly describe five of the most important emerging food-borne zoonotic pathogens: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The paper does not include a full description of all important emerging food-borne pathogens but instead provides a description of the present situation, as regards these globally more important pathogens. In addition, the authors describe each pathogen according to the new framework of a Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological risk assessment, which consists of hazard identification and characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. Moreover, the authors provide a brief account of attempts at risk mitigation, as well as suggestions for risk management for some of these pathogens, based on thorough international FAO/WHO risk assessments. The authors emphasise the importance of science-based programmes for the continued reduction of pathogens at relevant points of the ‘farm-to-fork’ food production chain, as this is the only sustainable basis for further reducing risks to human health in the area of preventable food-borne diseases.

PMID: 15702717 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


Written by geraldmoy

February 18, 2011 at 4:14 pm

The role of the Codex Alimentarius process in support of new products to enhance the nutritional health of infants and young children

Food Nutr Bull. 2010 Jun;31(2 Suppl):S128-33.

The role of the Codex Alimentarius process in support of new products to enhance the nutritional health of infants and young children.

Zlotkin SSiekmann JLartey AYang Z.

Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada.

The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety. Among other functions, it is responsible for setting international standards for safety and hygiene. Codex food standards and guidelines directed at foods produced primarily for young infants and children have important implications for maintaining nutritional status and health, especially given the positioning of these products as components of established World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF-recommended feeding strategies. Recently, new products targeted at this age group (e.g., lipid-based nutrient supplements and micronutrient powders) have been produced and used, but these are not totally covered under existing Codex guidelines or standards. The objective of this paper is to review the role of the Codex process and specifically to suggest revisions to existing Codex guidelines on formulated complementary foods (Guidelines for Formulated Supplementary Foods for Older Infants and Young Children, CAC/GL 08-1991) to encompass this new category of fortified complementary foods and home fortificants. In reviewing the existing guidelines, potential areas for revision included the sections on the recommended nutrients in these foods and their intended use. Updating the Codex guidelines provides the opportunity to encourage production and use of new products for children and help ensure that such foods, when used as directed, do not interfere with breastfeeding. The revised guidelines would help governments develop national regulations covering all forms of formulated complementary foods. They would also lessen impediments to international trade by providing clear guidance for foods used in feeding programs and for young children, particularly in developing countries.

PMID: 20715597 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]



Written by geraldmoy

February 13, 2011 at 3:11 pm

Teaching tool kit. Lesson Set – G Preparing food

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Setting up and running a school garden – Teaching Tool Kit: Lesson Set G – Preparing Food

Food and Agriculture Organization


Download (pdf, 440KB)

Food hygiene practices are based on an understanding of the dangers of “invisible dirt” (i.e. bacteria). This set of lessons focuses on ways of eating raw food and ways of conserving food value, and on cooking and eating as social activities and the culmination of gardening work.

Written by WASHplus

July 8, 2010 at 6:50 pm