Food Hygiene

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Hazard analysis and critical control point generic models for some traditional foods – A manual for the Eastern Mediterranean Region

This document is intended to assist producers, regulators, academics and trainers in applying the HACCP approach to traditional foods in the Eastern Mediterranean to improve food safety.
WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (2008)


Written by geraldmoy

March 5, 2013 at 10:17 am

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Vending Operations at a Railway Station and Bus Station in Pakistan

Bryan FL et al. J Food Protection 55(7):534-541 (1992)

Hazard analyses (which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of food throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of concern) were conducted on vending operations at a railway and bus station in a large city in Pakistan.  Commonly prepared foods which were surveyed included: rice, pulses, chick peas, ground meat and potato mixtures, meat stew, and okra.  Temperatures were measured and samples were collected from a variety of other foods.  Large numbers (10,000 – 10,000,000) of Clostridium perfringens were isolated from samples of pulses, ground meat dishes, and chick peas collected during display, 3 to 10 hours after cooking.  Aerobic colony counts were also high in these and other foods that held for several hours, unless hot, at temperatures above 55 C throughout the holding periods or periodic reheating practiced (which was done by a few vendors).  Cooking was usually thorough, but spores survived which germinated during the display period. High temperature holding or periodic reheating maintained safe foods, and hence, are critical control points for these operations.  Education about these matter 9ought t9o be directed at health and transportation authorities, vendors, and the public.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 5:14 pm

Contamination of weaning foods and transmission of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea in children in rural Bangladesh

Black RE, Brown KH, Becker S, Alim AR, Merson MH. Contamination of weaning foods and transmission of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea in children in rural Bangladesh. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1982;76(2):259-64.

In longitudinal studies of infectious diseases and nutrition in Bangladesh, we determined the degree of bacterial contamination of traditional weaning foods and evaluated the role of these foods in the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. 41% of samples of food items fed to weaning aged children contained Escherichia coli; these organisms were used as indicators of faecal contamination. Milk and foods prepared particularly for infants were more frequently and heavily contaminated with E. coli than was boiled rice, and E. coli levels were found to be related to the storage of cooked foods at high environmental temperatures. 50% of drinking water specimens also contained E. coli, but colony counts were approximately 10-fold lower than in food specimens. The proportion of a child’s food samples that contained E. coli was significantly related to the child’s annual incidence of diarrhoea associated with enterotoxigenic E. coli. This observation underscores the importance of seeking locally available foods that are hygienic as well as nutritious to supplement the diets of breastfeeding children in developing countries.

Written by geraldmoy

May 3, 2011 at 12:43 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Food safety: the fourth pillar in the strategy to prevent infant diarrhoe

Kaferstein DF (2003) Food safety: the fourth pillar in the strategy to prevent infant diarrhoea. Bulletin of the World Health Organization; 81(11): 842-843.

Public health historians will hopefully clarify one day why the
public health community has taken so long to recognize the link
between contaminated food and diarrhoea — particularly infant
diarrhoea — and why it has taken so long to integrate food
safety into prevention strategies.
Over two decades ago, WHO recognized that infant
diarrhoea was a critical public health problem (Snyder JD,
Merson HMH.  Bulletin of the World Health Organization
1982;60:605-13) and that the epidemiological link between
contaminated food and the resulting diarrhoea had been
established and confirmed (The role of food safety in health
development. Report of a FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
Safety. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1984 (WHO
Technical Report Series, No. 705); Motarjemi Y et al.
Contaminated weaning food — a major risk factor in the cause
of diarrhoea and associated malnutrition. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization 1993;71:79-82). The microbiological
evidence was even more striking: diarrhoea is caused by pathogens
that enter the body through the mouth, mainly via food or
drinking-water. Food, however, contains substances that are not
only nutritious for people but that also support the growth of
bacterial pathogens. Herein lies the crucial difference between
food and water in terms of what happens to bacteria. In water,
bacterial pathogens may survive for some time but they will not
increase in number. However, in many foods, and most
importantly in complementary (weaning) foods, the growth of
pathogens is well documented. Thus, even if food contained an
originally insignificant bacterial contamination, the pathogens
may multiply within a few hours to reach the minimum infective
dose that is required to cause disease, particularly if food is stored
at ambient temperature (between 20 °C and 40 °C) — a situation
frequently observed in developing countries. A substantial
number of cases of acute diarrhoea is caused by microbiologically
contaminated food, and the resulting malabsorption, leading to
a reduced nutritional status of the patients, is especially serious
for malnourished people.

Written by geraldmoy

April 18, 2011 at 8:22 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Surveillance for bacterial diarrhea and antimicrobial resistance in rural western Kenya

  1. Brooks JT,
  2. Ochieng JB,
  3. Kumar L,
  4. et al

. Surveillance for bacterial diarrhea and antimicrobial resistance in rural western Kenya, 1997–2003. Clin Infect Dis2006;43:393-401. 


Background. Diarrhea is a major cause of preventable illness in sub-Saharan Africa. Although most cases of bacterial gastroenteritis do not require antimicrobial treatment, antimicrobial use is widespread. We examined the bacterial causes of diarrhea and monitored antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates through clinic-based surveillance in a rural Kenyan community.

Methods. From May 1997 through April 2003, diarrheal stool samples from persons presenting to 4 sentinel health centers were cultured by standard techniques for routine bacterial enteric pathogens, for which antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined. A random subset of specimens was also evaluated for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

Results. Among stool specimens from 3445 persons, 1092 (32%) yielded at least 1 bacterial pathogen. Shigella species was most commonly isolated (responsible for 16% of all illnesses; 54% of isolates were Shigella flexneri)Campylobacter species and diarrheagenicE. coli predominated among children aged <5 years and were progressively replaced byShigella species with increasing age. With the exception of Campylobacter species, susceptibility to the antimicrobials used most widely in the community was low: <40% for all isolates tested and <25% for Shigella species. Most persons were treated with an antimicrobial to which their isolate was resistant. Susceptibility to specific antimicrobials was inversely proportional to the frequency with which they were prescribed.

Conclusions. The utility of available antimicrobials for treating bacterial diarrhea in rural western Kenya is substantially limited by reduced susceptibility. More judicious use of appropriate antimicrobials is warranted. Efforts to prevent illness through provision of clean water, improved hygiene, and vaccine development should be strengthened.

Written by geraldmoy

April 18, 2011 at 7:19 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Effect of caregiver feeding behaviours on child nutritional status in rural Ghana.

Effect of caregiver feeding behaviours on child nutritional status in rural Ghana.
Nti, C. A.; Lartey, A.; Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 2007, 31, 3, 303-309, 21 ref.

A six-month observational study involving 100 mothers with infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana. The objective was to assess the role of caregiver feeding behaviours on child nutritional status using a modified positive deviance approach. Each child was in the study for 6 months, during which they were observed at home once a month. On each visit, data were collected on the child anthropometry, child meal frequency, diet diversity, responsiveness of caregiver during feeding, child’s appetite and feeding atmosphere as well as caregiver hygienic practices related to feeding. Using weight-for-age (WAZ) and length-for-age (LAZ) scores, the children were classified as positive or negative deviant children. The study revealed significant differences between the two groups of children in terms of caregiver feeding behaviours. Positive deviant children had significantly higher meal frequencies (3.1±0.4 vs. 2.4±0.6,P=0.001), diet diversity scores (6.3±0.6 vs. 3.7±1.1, P=0.001), were fed under better hygienic conditions (7.2±0.9 vs. 4.2±1.1, P=0.001) and were much more interested in food during feeding (85.8% vs. 59.3%). Caregiver responsiveness during feeding was also significantly higher among the positive deviant group (6.5±0.8 vs. 4.5±0.9, P=0.001). This study has demonstrated the tremendous effect of caregiver feeding behaviours on child nutritional outcomes and provides a scientific basis for introducing care during feeding as a component of intervention to improve child nutritional status in Ghana.

  • Publication type: Journal article
  • Record Number: 20073154824
  • Author Affiliation: Department of Home Science, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG91, Legon, Ghana.
  • Author Email:
  • ISSN: 1470-6423
  • Language of publication: English
  • Geographical Location: Ghana;
  • Organism Descriptors: man;
  • Descriptors: anthropometric dimensions; child feeding; child nutrition; children; mothers; nutritional state; rural areas; women;
  • Identifiers: anthropometric measurements; nutritional status;
  • CABICODEs: VV110 – Diet Studies; VV120 – Physiology of Human Nutrition;
  • Broad Terms: West Africa; Africa South of Sahara; Africa; Developing Countries; ACP Countries; Commonwealth of Nations; Anglophone Africa; Homo; Hominidae; Primates; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals; eukaryotes;

Copyright CAB International 2010

Written by geraldmoy

April 14, 2011 at 9:32 am

USAID Deputy Administrator highlights cookstove projects

Donald Steinberg is the deputy administrator for USAID. He previously served as deputy president of the International Crisis Group. He is also a former member of the U.N. Civil Society Advisory Group on Women, Peace and Security, a former board member of the Women’s Refugee Commission, and also previously served on the advisory panel to the executive director of the U.N. Development Fund for Women. He has written extensively on issues related to women in conflict and gender empowerment, and has been a strong advocate for gender issues throughout his career.

An excerpt from the Frontlines interview:

FL: Can you point to a specific example of where USAID is innovating in its approach to women-centered policies?

DS: One practical example is the introduction of new fuel-efficient cooking equipment and methods. Especially in Africa, we are relying on women to move away from traditional dependence on charcoal, which has a devastating impact on the environment through deforestation, causes severe respiratory problems, and draws labor away from more productive uses. Solar cookers or other new forms of food preparation have the potential to encourage fundamental change in these societies and economies.

Complete article

Written by WASHplus

April 9, 2011 at 6:38 pm