Food Hygiene

Posts Tagged ‘burden of disease

Food Safety Encyclopedia

With the world’s growing population, the provision of a safe, nutritious and wholesome food supply for all has become a major challenge. To achieve this, effective risk management based on sound science and unbiased information is required by all stakeholders, including the food industry, governments and consumers themselves. In addition, the globalization of the food supply requires the harmonization of policies and standards based on a common understanding of food safety among authorities in countries around the world. With some 280 chapters, the Encyclopedia of Food Safety provides unbiased and concise overviews which form in total a comprehensive coverage of a broad range of food safety topics, which may be grouped under the following general categories: History and basic sciences that support food safety; Foodborne diseases, including surveillance and investigation; Foodborne hazards, including microbiological and chemical agents; Substances added to food, both directly and indirectly; Food technologies, including the latest developments; Food commodities, including their potential hazards and controls; Food safety management systems, including their elements and the roles of stakeholders. The Encyclopedia provides a platform for experts from the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment to share and learn from state-of-the art expertise with the rest of the food safety community.

Yasmine Motajemi, Gerald Moy and Ewen Tood, eds, Elsevier, London, 2014


Global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Furst T, Keise, J and Utzinger J. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 12(3): 210 – 221, March 2012
Published Online: 21 November 2011

Food-borne trematodiases are a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by liver, lung, and intestinal parasitic fluke infections. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2010 study) and a WHO initiative, we assessed the global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis, as expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for the year 2005.
We systematically searched electronic databases for reports about human food-borne trematodiasis without language restriction, between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2008. We used a broad search strategy with a combination of search terms and parasite and disease names. The initial search results were then screened on the basis of title, abstract, and, finally, full text. Relevant quantitative and qualitative data on human prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of food-borne trematodiasis were extracted. On the basis of available information on pathological and clinical appearance, we developed simplified disease models and did meta-analyses on the proportions and odds ratios of specified sequelae and estimated the global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis.
We screened 33 921 articles and identified 181 eligible studies containing quantitative information for inclusion in the meta-analyses. About 56·2 million people were infected with food-borne trematodes in 2005: 7·9 million had severe sequelae and 7158 died, most from cholangiocarcinoma and cerebral infection. Taken together, we estimate that the global burden of food-borne trematodiasis was 665 352 DALYs (lower estimate 479 496 DALYs; upper estimate 859 051 DALYs). Furthermore, knowledge gaps in crucial epidemiological disease parameters and methodological features for estimating the global burden of parasitic diseases that are characterised by highly focal spatial occurrence and scarce and patchy information were highlighted.
Despite making conservative estimates, we found that food-borne trematodiases are an important cluster of neglected diseases.
Swiss National Science Foundation; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Written by geraldmoy

March 21, 2012 at 4:57 am

Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis, foodborne disease, and pathogens commonly transmitted by food: an international review.

Flint JA, Van Duynhoven YT, Angulo FJ, DeLong SM, Braun P, Kirk M, Scallan E, Fitzgerald M, Adak GK,Sockett P, Ellis A, Hall G, Gargouri N, Walke H, Braam P Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis, foodborne disease, and pathogens commonly transmitted by food: an international review.

Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1;41(5):698-704.

The burden of foodborne disease is not well defined in many countries or regions or on a global level. The World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with other national public health agencies, is coordinating a number of international activities designed to assist countries in the strengthening of disease surveillance and to determine the burden of acute gastroenteritis. These data can then be used to estimate the following situations: (1) the burden associated with acute gastroenteritis of foodborne origin, (2) the burden caused by specific pathogens commonly transmitted by food, and (3) the burden caused by specific foods or food groups. Many of the scientists collaborating with the WHO on these activities have been involved in quantifying the burden of acute gastroenteritis on a national basis. This article reviews these key national studies and the international efforts that are providing the necessary information and technical resources to derive national, regional, and global burden of disease estimates.

Written by geraldmoy

May 27, 2011 at 9:53 pm

Source attribution of non-typhoid salmonellosis in New Zealand using outbreak surveillance data

King N, Lake R, Campbell D. Source attribution of non-typhoid salmonellosis in New Zealand using outbreak surveillance data, J Food Prot. 2011 Mar;74(3):438-45.


In this study, 204 New Zealand outbreaks of non-typhoid salmonellosis reported from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed for information on the sources of human infection. Data were extracted from the outbreak module of EpiSurv, New Zealand’s notifiable diseases database, and augmented with information from individual case reports and separate investigation reports. The outbreaks involved 1,426 cases, representing an estimated 9% of the total salmonellosis cases reported for the study period. Salmonella Typhimurium was the causative serotype in 78% of 172 outbreaks for which a serotype was available, involving 71% of outbreak cases. The most commonly reported outbreak setting was the home (47% of outbreaks), followed by commercial food operations (31%). Foodborne transmission was reported for 63% of the 123 outbreaks for which only one mode of transmission was reported, followed by person-to-person transmission (32%), waterborne transmission (3%), and zoonotic transmission (2%). However, evidence for the mode of transmission was weak or absent for 107 (63%) of the 169 outbreaks for which a mode of transmission was reported. For only 22 outbreaks was laboratory evidence successfully used to identify a potential source of infection. Of these 22 outbreaks, 7 were foodborne, 11 involved an infected food handler, 2 were attributed to contact with animals, 1 was attributed to consumption of drinking water, and 1 was attributed to multiple sources. The laboratory-confirmed contaminated foods were diverse and included imported and domestically produced foods. The results of this analysis support the hypothesis that non-typhoid salmonellosis is primarily a foodborne disease in New Zealand, but there is insufficient evidence to confirm important food vehicles.





Written by geraldmoy

May 24, 2011 at 1:50 pm

Attributing illness to food

Batz, M.B.Doyle, M.P.Morris Jr., J.G.,Painter, J.Singh, R.Tauxe, R.V.,Taylor, M.R.Wong, D.M.A.L.F. 2005, Emerging Infectious Diseases 11 (7), pp. 993-999

Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world, including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component of a risk-based approach to improving food safety.

Written by geraldmoy

April 14, 2011 at 10:16 am

Knowns and unknowns on burden of disease due to chemicals: a systematic review

Prüss-Ustün et al. Environmental Health 2011, 10:9


Background: Continuous exposure to many chemicals, including through air, water, food, or other media andproducts results in health impacts which have been well assessed, however little is known about the total diseaseburden related to chemicals. This is important to know for overall policy actions and priorities. In this article theknown burden related to selected chemicals or their mixtures, main data gaps, and the link to public health policyare reviewed.Methods: A systematic review of the literature for global burden of disease estimates from chemicals wasconducted. Global disease due to chemicals was estimated using standard methodology of the Global Burden ofDisease.Results: In total, 4.9 million deaths (8.3% of total) and 86 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) (5.7% oftotal) were attributable to environmental exposure and management of selected chemicals in 2004. The largestcontributors include indoor smoke from solid fuel use, outdoor air pollution and second-hand smoke, with 2.0,1.2 and 0.6 million deaths annually. These are followed by occupational particulates, chemicals involved in acutepoisonings, and pesticides involved in self-poisonings, with 375,000, 240,000 and 186,000 annual deaths,respectively.

Conclusions: The known burden due to chemicals is considerable. This information supports decision-making inprogrammes having a role to play in reducing human exposure to toxic chemicals. These figures present only anumber of chemicals for which data are available, therefore, they are more likely an underestimate of the actualburden. Chemicals with known health effects, such as dioxins, cadmium, mercury or chronic exposure to pesticides could not be included in this article due to incomplete data and information. Effective public health interventions are known to manage chemicals and limit their public health impacts and should be implemented at national and international levels.

Written by geraldmoy

March 3, 2011 at 1:04 pm

Posted in Review, WHO

Tagged with ,

The economic cost of foodborne disease in New Zealand

Applied Economics, Prepared for the New Zealand Food Authority, November 2010

This report concerns the economic cost in New Zealand of the following six foodborne diseases:• campylobacteriosis• salmonellosis• norovirus• yersiniosis• STEC• listeriosisAll of them are bacterial infections except norovirus (which is a virus) and all may spread through ingesting contaminated food.All are characterised by gastroenteritis with diarrhoea and related symptoms. Most are self-treated and may not be recognised by the health system or impose a recognisable burden on the economy. Some, however, may be treated by general practitioners and others may develop complications and require extensive treatment and hospitalisation, including in isolated instances, protracted care extending well beyond the year in which the infection occurred.There are five main components to the cost of these diseases comprising:• Costs of regulation and surveillance incurred by the Government• Costs borne by businesses, including the costs of compliance and the consequential costs of food incidents and disease outbreaks• Costs of treatment—incurred mainly by the government by way of subsidies towards the cost of GP services, other community care and payments for inpatient hospital care• Costs associated with loss of output because of worker absenteeism caused by foodborne disease• Personal and lifestyle costs incurred by households and individuals in connection with private disbursements (where no recourse to government subsidy exists) and pain, suffering and disruption, including the possibility of premature deathMost costs of government regulation and many costs to businesses are fixed costs that cannot easily be allocated to individual diseases, except in a few specific instances. All other costs are variable and specific and are a function of the frequency, type and progression of incident cases of disease.The method of calculating each category of disease-specific variable cost involves multiplying the relevant central estimate of volume by price—i.e. health services per incident case × unit price in the case of treatment; days lost per incident case × earnings in the case of loss of output; and the number of days of healthy living lost to disability per incident case × cost of disability and death in the case of personal losses, including lifestyle and pain and suffering. Because the personal cost of disability includes costs attributable to loss of earnings by households, to avoid double counting, output losses borne by households are subtracted from total personal losses to yield a residual lifestyle loss.The table below summarises central estimates for the aggregate cost of foodborne disease in 2009 for each of the five cost categories identified above.

Summary of central estimates of total costs of foodborne diseases, 2009 includes government outlays of $16.4 million, industry costs of $12.3 million and $133.2 million for incident case costs of disease associated with treatment, loss of output and residual lifestyle los

Written by geraldmoy

March 1, 2011 at 1:46 pm