Food Hygiene

Posts Tagged ‘children under 2

Food Safety Encyclopedia

With the world’s growing population, the provision of a safe, nutritious and wholesome food supply for all has become a major challenge. To achieve this, effective risk management based on sound science and unbiased information is required by all stakeholders, including the food industry, governments and consumers themselves. In addition, the globalization of the food supply requires the harmonization of policies and standards based on a common understanding of food safety among authorities in countries around the world. With some 280 chapters, the Encyclopedia of Food Safety provides unbiased and concise overviews which form in total a comprehensive coverage of a broad range of food safety topics, which may be grouped under the following general categories: History and basic sciences that support food safety; Foodborne diseases, including surveillance and investigation; Foodborne hazards, including microbiological and chemical agents; Substances added to food, both directly and indirectly; Food technologies, including the latest developments; Food commodities, including their potential hazards and controls; Food safety management systems, including their elements and the roles of stakeholders. The Encyclopedia provides a platform for experts from the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment to share and learn from state-of-the art expertise with the rest of the food safety community.

Yasmine Motajemi, Gerald Moy and Ewen Tood, eds, Elsevier, London, 2014


Microbial Contamination of Seven Major Weaning Foods in Nigeria


Oluwafemi F and  Nnanna Ibeh I. J Health Popul Nutr. 29(4): 415–419 (2011)


Five million children aged less than five years die annually due to diarrhoea. The aim of the study was to identify some possible contributing factors for persistent diarrhoea. Seven weaning foods, including a locally-made food, were evaluated by estimating the microbial load using the most probable number method and aflatoxin levels (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, and AFB2) by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection of fluorescence.

The results showed that the locally-made weaning food had the highest microbial count (2,000 cfu/g) and faecal streptococcal count (25 cfu/g). Moulds isolated were mainly Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. glaucus, Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. The home-made weaning food recorded the highest fungal count (6,500 cfu/g). AFM1 of the weaning foods was 4.6-530 ng/mL. One weaning food had AFB1 level of 4,806 ng/g. Aflatoxin metabolites, apart from AFM1 and AFB1 present in the weaning foods, were AFG1 and AFG2. There were low microbial counts in commercial weaning foods but had high levels of aflatoxins (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, AFB1, and AFB2).

Growth and development of the infant is rapid, and it is, thus, possible that exposure to aflatoxins in weaning foods might have significant health effects.

Written by geraldmoy

February 7, 2012 at 3:02 pm

The Effect of Handwashing at Recommended Times with Water Alone and With Soap on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: An Observational Study

Luby SP, Halder AK, Huda T, Unicomb L, Johnston RB (2011) The Effect of Handwashing at Recommended Times with Water Alone and With Soap on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: An Observational Study. PLoS Med 8(6): e1001052. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001052



Standard public health interventions to improve hand hygiene in communities with high levels of child mortality encourage community residents to wash their hands with soap at five separate key times, a recommendation that would require mothers living in impoverished households to typically wash hands with soap more than ten times per day. We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea.

Methods and Findings

Fieldworkers conducted a 5-hour structured observation and a cross-sectional survey in 347 households from 50 villages across rural Bangladesh in 2007. For the subsequent 2 years, a trained community resident visited each of the enrolled households every month and collected information on the occurrence of diarrhea in the preceding 48 hours among household residents under the age of 5 years. Compared with children living in households where persons prepared food without washing their hands, children living in households where the food preparer washed at least one hand with water only (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57–1.05), washed both hands with water only (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.51–0.89), or washed at least one hand with soap (OR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.19–0.47) had less diarrhea. In households where residents washed at least one hand with soap after defecation, children had less diarrhea (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.26–0.77). There was no significant association between handwashing with or without soap before feeding a child, before eating, or after cleaning a child’s anus who defecated and subsequent child diarrhea.


These observations suggest that handwashing before preparing food is a particularly important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea.

Written by geraldmoy

July 5, 2011 at 8:06 am

Basic principals for the preparation of safe food for infants and Young Children

Basic principals for the preparation of safe food for infants and Young Children


Basic principals for the preparation of safe food for infants and Young Children

The recommendations outlined in this leaflet provide basic principles for the preparation of safe food for infants and young children. The observation of these principles by mothers or other care-givers will contribute to the prevention of diarrhoea and associated malnutrition.

Written by geraldmoy

June 14, 2011 at 6:40 pm

Survey of food-hygiene practices at home and childhood diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam

Takanashi K Chonan Y Quyen DT Khan NC Poudel KC and Jimba M (2009) Survey of food-hygiene practices at home and childhood diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, J Health Popul Nutr; 27(5): 602-11.J Health Popul Nutr. 


Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.


A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months-5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11-7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam.

Written by geraldmoy

June 13, 2011 at 2:46 pm

Worldwide Timing of Growth Faltering: Revisiting Implications for Interventions.

Victora  CG de Onis M Curi Hallal P Blössner M Shrimpton R (2010)  Worldwide Timing of Growth Faltering: Revisiting Implications for Interventions. Pediatrics; 125(3):473-80.


OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to describe worldwide growth-faltering patterns by using the new World Health Organization (WHO) standards.


METHODS: We analyzed information available from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, comprising data from national anthropometric surveys from 54 countries. Anthropometric data comprise weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, and weight-for-length/height z scores. The WHO regions were used to aggregate countries: Europe and Central Asia; Latin America and the Caribbean; North Africa and Middle East; South Asia; and sub-Saharan Africa.


RESULTS: Sample sizes ranged from 1000 to 47 000 children. Weight for length/height starts slightly above the standard in children aged 1 to 2 months and falters slightly until 9 months of age, picking up after that age and remaining close to the standard thereafter. Weight for age starts close to the standard and falters moderately until reaching approximately −1 z at 24 months and remaining reasonably stable after that. Length/height for age also starts close to the standard and falters dramatically until 24 months, showing noticeable bumps just after 24, 36, and 48 months but otherwise increasing slightly after 24 months.


CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of child growth patterns in 54 countries with WHO standards shows that growth faltering in early childhood is even more pronounced than suggested by previous analyses based on the National Center for Health Statistics reference. These findings confirm the need to scale up interventions during the window of opportunity defined by pregnancy and the first 2 years of life, including prevention of low birth weight and appropriate infant feeding practices.

Written by geraldmoy

June 13, 2011 at 2:07 pm

Essential Nutrition Actions Improving Maternal-Newborn-Infant and Young Child Health and Nutrition









WHO Nutrition for Health and Development

Infant and young child nutrition: implementation plan

Sixty-fourth World Health Assembly A64/22
Provisional agenda item 13.13

In May 2010, the Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA63.23 on infant and young child nutrition. Inter alia, it urged Member States to increase political commitment to preventing and reducing malnutrition in all its forms, to expedite implementation of the global strategy on infant and young child feeding, and to expand interventions. The Health Assembly also requested the Director-General to provide support to Member States in expanding their nutritional interventions and to develop a comprehensive implementation plan on infant and young child nutrition as a critical component of a global multisectoral nutrition framework.

Four background papers are being drafted to aid preparation of the draft plan.

  • The first presents a situation analysis of nutrition policies and programmes, based on the responses received from 119 countries and 4 territories on the results of questionnaire reviews of national nutrition policy conducted in 2009-2010. Data were also extracted from WHO’s databases on nutrition. The document aims to identify both gaps and good practices in the design and implementation of nutrition policies and programmes.
  • The second reviews effective nutrition actions, summarizing what is known about health interventions that can improve the nutritional status of women and young children, and including different options for their delivery and examples of good practice for implementation at country level. It will provide the rationale for the inclusion of such interventions in the draft plan.
  • The third presents a model for the preparation of country plans for expanding nutrition activities. It will provide guidance on how to implement context mapping, establish nutrition goals, choose among policy and programme options, involve stakeholders, assess financial and human resource requirements, and establish governance structures.
  • The fourth presents a framework for monitoring implementation of programmes and policies, achievement of results, and use of resources. It will identify and provide definitions of policies, process and outcome indicators and set out data-collection procedures. The indicators have been selected to take into account other intersectoral initiatives with common determinants. The aim of this paper is to facilitate the selection of the core monitoring indicators that should be included in the comprehensive implementation plan.

The background papers will be finalised after a consultation process with a broad range of stakeholders including representatives of different government sectors (for instance, health, agriculture, social welfare, education, trade, finance, environment and industry), organizations in the United Nations system, development banks, donors, civil society, and the private sector through an Internet-based process,
e-mail correspondence and face-to-face discussions at regional level and, when possible, national level.  Draft documents published for consultation include the following for paper 2 on interventions.



Written by geraldmoy

June 13, 2011 at 1:49 pm