Food Hygiene

Posts Tagged ‘food markets

Five Keys to Safer Foods – country examples


WHO aims to improve the exchange and reapplication of practical food safety knowledge in and between Member States. Countries can highly benefit by exchanging experiences and tested solutions with each other. This section will enable countries and partners to have access to the different tools produced in different parts of the world to deliver the Five Keys messages.

The Five Keys poster has been translated into over 70 languages and training materials for various target groups, especially school children, have been prepared.


Phage types, virulence genes and PFGE profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from raw beef, soft cheese and vegetables in Lima (Peru)

Mora A, León SL, Blanco M, Blanco JE, López C, Dahbi G, Echeita A, González EA, Blanco J (2007) Phage types, virulence genes and PFGE profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from raw beef, soft cheese and vegetables in Lima (Peru). Int J Food Microbiol; 114(2):204-10.

The present study was conducted in Lima Metropolitana to evaluate the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 in raw beef, raw ground beef, soft cheese and fresh vegetables, sampled at different markets in the city. Between October 2000 and February 2001, 407 food samples were collected from different markets in the 42 districts of Lima Metropolitana. Samples were assayed for E. coli O157 by selective enrichment in modified Tryptic Soy Broth containing novobiocin, followed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite. Fifty (12.3%) of 407 food samples resulted positive for E. coli O157 isolation (23 of 102 ground beef; 15 of 102 beef meat; eight of 102 soft cheese and four of 101 fresh vegetables). Thirty-five E. coli O157 isolates were further analysed for the presence of virulence genes. All 35 were positive by PCR for O157 rfbE, fliCh7, eae-gamma1 and ehxA genes. In addition, genes encoding Shiga toxins were detected in 33 of 35 isolates, five isolates (14%) encoded stx(1), stx(2), and 28 (80%) stx2 only. The isolates were of seven different phage types (PT4, PT8, PT14, PT21, PT34, PT54, and PT87) with three phage types accounting for 80% of isolates: PT4 (15 isolates), PT14 (8 isolates), and PT21 (5 isolates). Interestingly, the majority (31 of 35; 89%) of E. coli O157:H7 isolates characterized in this study belonged mainly to the phage types previously found in STEC O157:H7 strains associated with severe human disease in Europe and Canada. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 32 isolates revealed 14 XbaI-PFGE groups (I to XIV) of similarity >85%, with 23 (72%) isolates grouped in five clusters. Some isolates from different districts presented a high clonal relatedness. Thus, PFGE group VIII clustered eleven strains from nine different districts. The broad range of PFGE subtypes found in this study demonstrates the natural occurrence of many genetic variants among STEC O157:H7 spread in Lima.

Written by geraldmoy

June 12, 2011 at 3:18 pm

Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw meat, raw milk, and street vended juices in Bangladesh

Islam MA, Mondol AS, Azmi IJ, de Boer E, Beumer RR, Zwietering MH, Heuvelink AE, Talukder KA (2010) Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw meat, raw milk, and street vended juices in Bangladesh; Foodborne Pathog Dis; 7(11): 1381-5.

The major objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in different types of food samples and to compare their genetic relatedness with STEC strains previously isolated from animal sources in Bangladesh. We investigated a total of 213 food samples, including 90 raw meat samples collected from retail butcher shops, 20 raw milk samples from domestic cattle, and 103 fresh juice samples from street vendors in Dhaka city. We found that more than 68% (n = 62) of the raw meat samples were positive for the stx gene(s); 34% (n = 21) of buffalo meats and 66% (n = 41) of beef. Approximately 10% (n = 2) of the raw milk and 8% (n = 8) of the fresh juice samples were positive for stx. We isolated STEC O157 from seven meat samples (7.8%), of which two were from buffalo meats and five from beef; and no other STEC serotypes could be isolated. We could not isolate STEC from any of the stx-positive raw milk and juice samples. The STEC O157 isolates from raw meats were positive for the stx(2), eae, katP, etpD, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli hly virulence genes, and they belonged to three different phage types: 8 (14.3%), 31 (42.8%), and 32 (42.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed six distinct patterns among seven isolates of STEC O157, suggesting a heterogeneous clonal diversity. Of the six PFGE patterns, one was identical and the other two were ≥90% related to PFGE patterns of STEC O157 strains previously isolated from animal feces, indicating that raw meats are readily contaminated with fecal materials. This study represents the first survey of STEC in the food chain in Bangladesh.

Written by geraldmoy

June 12, 2011 at 3:12 pm

Impact of small scale fermentation technology on food safety in developing countries.

Motarjemi Y (2002) Impact of small scale fermentation technology on food safety in developing countries. Int J Food Microbiol;75(3):213-29.

Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for food preservation. Over the centuries, it has evolved and been refined and diversified. Today, a variety of food products is derived from this technology in households, small-scale food industries as well as in large enterprises. Furthermore, fermentation is an affordable food preservation technology and of economic importance to developing countries. In the report of an FAO/WHO Workshop (FAO/WHO, 1996), fermentation was reviewed and the nutritional and safety aspects of fermentation technologies and their products were assessed. Fermentation enhances the nutritional quality of foods and contributes to food safety particularly under conditions where refrigeration or other foods processing facilities are not available. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) studies of some fermented products have demonstrated that depending on the process and the hygienic conditions observed during preparation, some fermented foods, e.g. togwa prepared in Tanzania, may pose a safety risk. Fermented foods must therefore be studied following HACCP principles and small-scale food industries and households must be advised on the critical control points of fermentation processes and the control measures to be applied at these points. This paper reviews the risks and benefits of fermentation and demonstrates the application of the HACCP system to some fermented foods in developing countries.

Written by geraldmoy

June 8, 2011 at 2:27 am

A Guide to Identifying Hazards and Assessing Risks Associated with Food Preparation and Storage


Bryan FL (1992) A Guide to Identifying Hazards and Assessing Risks Associated with Food Preparation and Storage, World Health Organization, Geneva

Explains how the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system can be used as a rational, reliable, and cost-effective method for reducing the risks that can lead to foodborne illness or food spoilage. Noting that traditional measures, such as end-product testing and the routine medical examination of food handlers, have largely failed to ensure food safety, the book concentrates on the many practical advantages of HACCP evaluations, offering detailed advice on the use of this system to identify hazards in food preparation and storage, assess related risks, and focus control procedures on these “critical” points. Throughout the book, numerous examples are used to show how the HACCP method, which concentrates on the detection and direct control of high-risk operations, can provide a greater assurance of food safety than any other approach.
The book is addressed to public health personnel with some training in food microbiology and technology. The opening chapters describe the principles of the HACCP system, explain how its action-oriented approach works in practice, and discuss its application in households, cottage industries, and street food stalls, as well as in food service and food processing establishments. The most extensive chapter provides a point-by-point explanation of the steps to follow and the tests to be performed when looking for hazards and assessing their severity and risks.

Written by geraldmoy

June 8, 2011 at 2:16 am

Hazard and Critical Control Points of Ready-to-Eat foods and an abattoir examination in a typical tropical marke

Adegoke GO, Egunjobi O Agbola SO Olatuberu CO and Moy G (2008) Hazard and Critical Control Points of Ready-to-Eat foods and an abattoir examination in a typical tropical market.  International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health; 1: 58-68.

Ready-to-Eat (RTE, street) foods sold at Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria were examined. Methods used for the preparation of RTE foods were followed in establishing relevant Critical Control Points (CCPs). Hazard analyses were carried out on all foods examined from the raw material up to the finished product levels. Two cereal-based products (kokoro and kunu tsamiya) had high microbial counts (>10<SUP align=right>4</SUP> cfu g<SUP align=right>−1</SUP>) and coliforms, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from the samples examined. From akara a cowpea paste, Staphylocccus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated. The samples of ice cream examined had pH values of 6.2 6.8 and Staph. aureus, E. coli and Psendomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and E. coli were isolated from gari a cassava based products. Staphylocccus aureus. A. niger and Bacillus spp. were isolated from the buckets, knives and floor of the abattoir examined. Water used by butchers and some food producers at the Bodija Market were contaminated with E. coli and Staph. aureus.

Written by geraldmoy

June 8, 2011 at 1:48 am

Food as a vehicle of transmission of cholera

Rabbani GH, Greenough WB 3rd (1999) Food as a vehicle of transmission of cholera. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res;17(1):1-9.


Cholera has been recognized as a killer disease since earliest time. Since 1817, six pandemics have swept over the world, and the seventh one is in progress. The disease is caused by infection of the small intestine by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 and is characterized by massive acute diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration: death occurs in severe, untreated cases. Cholera is a highly contagious disease, and is transmitted primarily by ingestion of faecally-contaminated water by susceptible persons. Besides water, foods have also been recognized as an important vehicle for transmission of cholera. Foods are likely to be faecally contaminated during preparation, particularly by infected food handlers in an unhygienic environment. The physicochemical characteristics of foods that support survival and growth of V. cholerae O1 and O139 include high-moisture content, neutral or an alkaline pH, low temperature, high-organic content, and absence of other competing bacteria. Seafoods, including fish, shellfish, crabs, oysters and clams, have all been incriminated in cholera outbreaks in many countries, including the United States and Australia. Contaminated rice, millet gruel, and vegetables have also been implicated in several outbreaks. Other foods, including fruits (except sour fruits), poultry, meat, and dairy products, have the potential of transmitting cholera. To reduce the risk of food-borne transmission of cholera, it is recommended that foods should be prepared, served, and eaten in an hygienic environment, free from faecal contamination. Proper cooking, storing, and re-heating of foods before eating, and hand-washing with safe water before eating and after defaecation are important safety measures for preventing food-borne transmission of cholera.

Written by geraldmoy

June 4, 2011 at 1:37 pm