Food Hygiene

Posts Tagged ‘kitchen hygiene

Critical control points for foods prepared in households in which babies had salmonellosis

Michanie S Bryan FL Alvarez P Olivo AB.  Int J Food Microbiol. 5:337-354 (1987)


Sixteen babies undergoing reehydration therapy were examined for enteric pathogens.  Salmonella agona was isolated from four, Samonella enteritidis from two, Shiegella boydii from one: neither Campylobacter nor Yersinia were recovered from any of the babies.  Three househoolds in which Samonella group B (S. aghona) was isolated from the babies were selected for hazard analysis of food preparation practices.  In one house, S. agona was recovered from the feces of the mother and gransmother of the baby and from a kitchen knife, a blender, malagueta (spice) used to flavor milk, a mop and flies.  All foods were cooked to 100 C and many were eaten a short time afterwards.  Some foods were held at ambient room temperature until the arrival of an absent family member or kept overnight.  During the holding interval, large numbers of microorganism accumulated in the foods, often exceeding 10, 000,000/gh. Bacillus cereus was recovered from 7 of 16 samples of cooked foods.  The sample of  “moro” (rice and beans mixture) had a count of 1,500,000/g.  Staphyl9ococcus aureus was isloated for 11 smaples; a sample of milk had a count of great than 100,000/g.  Critical control points for milk formula were heating, holding after heating, cleaning and disinfecting bottles, nipples and pans used to store milk, and utensils used to dispense the milk.



Hazard Analyses of Foods Prepared by Migrants Living in a New Settlement at the Outskirts of Lima, Peru

Bryan FL et al., J Food Protection 51(4): 314-323 (1988)


Hazard analyses of food preparation practices were conducted in three household in a new settlement in the rocky, dusty hillsides at the outskirts of Lima, Peru.  These analysis consisted of watching all steps of preparation, recording temperatures throughout these steps, and collecting samples of the food and testing for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms.l  The residents had migrated from different regions of the country: consequently, they prepared different foods.  These included soya cereal, milk formula, rice and carrots for feeding a baby who had diarrhea, soups, masked potatoes with spinach, carrot and beet salad, cow;s foot soup, beans, rice and mixture of beans and rice.  The temperatures attained were high enough to kill vegetative forms of foodborne pathogens, but not heir spores.  During the interval between cooking in the morning and serving at either lunch or supper time, foods were held either on unheated ranges or in unheated ovens.  This interval was long enough to permit some bacterial multiplication, but apparently not to massive quantities.  Just before the evening meal, food were reheated to temperature that usually exceeded 70 C.  rice, however, was either served cold or if reheated, the center temperature rose a few degrees only.  Critical control points for preparation of family meals are cooking, holding between cooking and serving, and reheating.  Critical control points for milk formula for babies are using recently-boiled water for the formula, cleaning and boiling bottles and nipples, and of particular importance, time of holding at room temperature.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 2:55 pm

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Food Preparation and Storage in Homes in a Village and Town in Pakistan

Bryan FL et al J Food Protection, 55(9):714-721


Hazard analyse were conducted in 13 homes in each of a village and a town in Pakistan.  Pulses, lentils, chick peas, potatoes, rice, and combinations of them, curd, and weaning preparations were commonly prepared in both locations, and meat dishes were prepared in the town.  Food foos were left, usually at room ambient temperatue, overnight in 9over 50% of the homes.  Samples of foods cooked in the m9oring and eaten at noon usualoly had mesophilic aerobic colony counts less that 10,000 CFU/g, but those left overnight usually ranged between 1,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 CFU/g.  Coliform bacteria were isolated from 77% of samples; many of the counts exceeded 100,000/g.  Greater thant 10,000/g Staphylococci aureus were isolat4ed from curd and buffalo milk, w;;hich had been previously heated.  Clostridium perfingens were isolated from 18% of sample; once from pulses left overight in quantities exceeding 10,000,000/g.  Only three samples contained Bacillus cereus.  Salmonella was not recovered from any of 28 samples.  Hazaards w4ere primarily associated with holding the foos after prepaation.  Critical Control P9oints are cooking, manipulation of foods after cooking, holding cooked foods, and reheating.



Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 2:32 pm

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Food Preparation in Homes in Which Persons Had Diarrhea in Zambia

Schmitt R Bryan FL Jermini M ChilufyaEN Hakalima AT Zyuulu M Mfume E Mwandwe C Mullungushi E Lubasi D. Journal of Food Protection, 60(2): 161-171(1997)

Following identification of some cases of diarrhea from persons who either sought treatment at a health clinic that served two townships near a large city in Zambia or got water from a deep protected well in one of the townships, hazard analyses were done of food preparation and storage practices at 17 homes. Samples of foods at various stages of preparation, foods held overnight, and drinking water were collected from the homes of the ill persons and were tested for common foodborne pathogens and indicator organisms. Salmonella was isolated from a sample of leftover kapenta (cooked dried minnows). Thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli were isolated from water from shallow wells and a treated community supply. Although thermtolerant coliforms were not recovered from the protected well site, they were isolated from a sample of water collected in a home that used this supply. Several leftover foods, however, contained much larger populations of thermotolerant coliforms and larger populations of aerobic mesophilic organisms than the water. Furthermore, leftover nshima (boiled and whipped corn meal) and porridge contained large populations (>105) of Bacillus cereus per gram. Foods during cooking attained temperatures that would have been lethal to vegetative cells of foodborne pathogens. After cooking, they were subjected to time-temperature abuse during holding until eaten or while held overnight.

Written by geraldmoy

January 11, 2012 at 2:37 pm

Food safety in the domestic environment: the effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks

Nauta MJ, Fischer AR, van Asselt ED, de Jong AE, Frewer LJ, de Jonge R (2008)

Food safety in the domestic environment: the effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks. Risk Analysis; 28(1):179-92.



The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information interventions were designed and tested on participant motivation and intentions to cook more safely. Based on these self-reported measures, the intervention supported by the emotion “disgust” was selected as the most promising information intervention. Its effect on microbial cross-contamination was tested by recruiting a set of participants who prepared a salad with chicken breast fillet carrying a known amount of tracer bacteria. The amount of tracer that could be recovered from the salad revealed the transfer and survival of Campylobacter and was used as a measure of hygiene. This was introduced into an existing risk model on Campylobacter in the Netherlands to assess the effect of the information intervention both at the level of exposure and the level of human disease risk. We showed that the information intervention supported by the emotion “disgust” alone had no measurable effect on the health risk. However, when a behavioral cue was embedded within the instruction for the salad preparation, the risk decreased sharply. It is shown that a transdisciplinary approach, involving research on risk perception, microbiology, and risk assessment, is successful in evaluating the efficacy of an information intervention in terms of human health risks. The approach offers a novel tool for science-based risk management in the area of food safety.

Written by geraldmoy

June 11, 2011 at 8:09 pm

Source attribution of non-typhoid salmonellosis in New Zealand using outbreak surveillance data

King N, Lake R, Campbell D. Source attribution of non-typhoid salmonellosis in New Zealand using outbreak surveillance data, J Food Prot. 2011 Mar;74(3):438-45.


In this study, 204 New Zealand outbreaks of non-typhoid salmonellosis reported from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed for information on the sources of human infection. Data were extracted from the outbreak module of EpiSurv, New Zealand’s notifiable diseases database, and augmented with information from individual case reports and separate investigation reports. The outbreaks involved 1,426 cases, representing an estimated 9% of the total salmonellosis cases reported for the study period. Salmonella Typhimurium was the causative serotype in 78% of 172 outbreaks for which a serotype was available, involving 71% of outbreak cases. The most commonly reported outbreak setting was the home (47% of outbreaks), followed by commercial food operations (31%). Foodborne transmission was reported for 63% of the 123 outbreaks for which only one mode of transmission was reported, followed by person-to-person transmission (32%), waterborne transmission (3%), and zoonotic transmission (2%). However, evidence for the mode of transmission was weak or absent for 107 (63%) of the 169 outbreaks for which a mode of transmission was reported. For only 22 outbreaks was laboratory evidence successfully used to identify a potential source of infection. Of these 22 outbreaks, 7 were foodborne, 11 involved an infected food handler, 2 were attributed to contact with animals, 1 was attributed to consumption of drinking water, and 1 was attributed to multiple sources. The laboratory-confirmed contaminated foods were diverse and included imported and domestically produced foods. The results of this analysis support the hypothesis that non-typhoid salmonellosis is primarily a foodborne disease in New Zealand, but there is insufficient evidence to confirm important food vehicles.





Written by geraldmoy

May 24, 2011 at 1:50 pm

Poor food hygiene and housing as risk factors for typhoid fever in Semarang, Indonesia

  1. M. Hussein Gasem1,
  2. W. M. V. W. M. V. Dolmans2,
  3. M. M. Keuter2,
  4. R. R. Djokomoeljanto1

Article first published online: 21 DEC 2001

DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00734.x

Tropical Medicine & International Health

Volume 6, Issue 6, pages 484–490, June 2001

To identify risk factors for typhoid fever in Semarang city and its surroundings, 75 culture-proven typhoid fever patients discharged 2 weeks earlier from hospital and 75 controls were studied. Control subjects were neighbours of cases with no history of typhoid fever, not family members, randomly selected and matched for gender and age. Both cases and controls were interviewed at home by the same trained interviewer using a standardized questionnaire. A structured observation of their living environment inside and outside the house was performed during the visit and home drinking water samples were tested bacteriologically. Univariate analysis showed the following risk factors for typhoid fever: never or rarely washing hands before eating (OR=3.28; 95% CI=1.41–7.65); eating outdoors at least once a week (OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.09–8.25); eating outdoors at a street food stall or mobile food vendor (OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.30–11.48); consuming ice cubes in beverage in the 2-week period before getting ill (OR=3.00, 95% CI=1.09–8.25) and buying ice cubes from a street vendor (OR=5.82; 95% CI=1.69–20.12). Water quality and living environment of cases were worse than that of controls, e.g. cases less often used clean water for taking a bath (OR=6.50; 95% CI= 1.47–28.80), for brushing teeth (OR=4.33; 95% CI=1.25–15.20) and for drinking (OR=3.67; 95% CI=1.02–13.14). Cases tended to live in houses without water supply from the municipal network (OR=11.00; 95% CI=1.42–85.2), with open sewers (OR=2.80; 95% CI=1.0–7.77) and without tiles in the kitchen (OR=2.67; 95% CI=1.04–6.81). Multivariate analysis showed that living in a house without water supply from the municipal network (OR=29.18; 95% CI=2.12–400.8) and with open sewers (OR=7.19; 95% CI=1.33–38.82) was associated with typhoid fever. Never or rarely washing hands before eating (OR=3.97; 95% CI=1.22–12.93) and being unemployed or having a part-time job (OR=31.3; 95% CI=3.08–317.4) also were risk factors. In this population typhoid fever was associated with poor housing and inadequate food and personal hygiene.

Written by geraldmoy

April 12, 2011 at 9:22 am