Food Hygiene

Posts Tagged ‘street vendors

Five Keys to Safer Foods – country examples

http://www.who.int/foodsafety/consumer/5keys/en/index1.html

 

WHO aims to improve the exchange and reapplication of practical food safety knowledge in and between Member States. Countries can highly benefit by exchanging experiences and tested solutions with each other. This section will enable countries and partners to have access to the different tools produced in different parts of the world to deliver the Five Keys messages.

The Five Keys poster has been translated into over 70 languages and training materials for various target groups, especially school children, have been prepared.

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Hazards and Critical Control Points of Vending Operations in a Mountain Resort Town in Pakistan

Bryan FL et al. J Food Protection 55(9):701-707 (1992)

Hazard analyses (which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of food throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of concern) were conducted on vending operations of chicken, rice, pulse patties, and ice cream in a resort town .  Salmonellae were isolated from ground meat, chicken flesh (from all operations surveyed), cutting boards, egg shells (eggs used in pulse patties), and buffalo milk (used for milk shakes).  Greater than 100,000 coliform bacteria were isolated from raw milk, ice-cream mixes and products, and pulse patty mix.  Time-temperature exposure during cooking was adequate to kill salmonellae, but there were potentials for recontamination from cutting boards, knives, and hands of the vendor.  Buffalo milk was held in a freezer and not boiled by the vendor as is usual in Pakistani homes to retard spoilage.  Hence, because pathogens were not killed, milk shakes were a health risk.  Pulse patties were not always thoroughly cooked, so pathogens could have survived.  Holding stacks of them on the griddle for several hours would have allowed germination and growth of bacterial spores and growth of resulting cells.  Health agency personnel in developing countries, vendors, and consumers of these foods need to be informed of the hazards and appropriate preventive measures.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 6:18 pm

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Vending Operations at a Railway Station and Bus Station in Pakistan

Bryan FL et al. J Food Protection 55(7):534-541 (1992)

Hazard analyses (which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of food throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of concern) were conducted on vending operations at a railway and bus station in a large city in Pakistan.  Commonly prepared foods which were surveyed included: rice, pulses, chick peas, ground meat and potato mixtures, meat stew, and okra.  Temperatures were measured and samples were collected from a variety of other foods.  Large numbers (10,000 – 10,000,000) of Clostridium perfringens were isolated from samples of pulses, ground meat dishes, and chick peas collected during display, 3 to 10 hours after cooking.  Aerobic colony counts were also high in these and other foods that held for several hours, unless hot, at temperatures above 55 C throughout the holding periods or periodic reheating practiced (which was done by a few vendors).  Cooking was usually thorough, but spores survived which germinated during the display period. High temperature holding or periodic reheating maintained safe foods, and hence, are critical control points for these operations.  Education about these matter 9ought t9o be directed at health and transportation authorities, vendors, and the public.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 5:14 pm

Critical Control Points of Street-vended Foods in the Dominican Republic

Bryan FL et al J Food Protection, 51(5):373-383 (1988)

 

Hazard analyses were conducted at four steet-vending stands in the Dominican Republic.  Temperatures of food were measured during cooking, displaying (holding), and reheating (when done).  Samples were taken at each step of the operation qand at 5 to 6 hour intervals during display.  Food usually attained temperatures that exceeded 90 C at the geometric center during cooking and reheating.  A three of the stands, food (e.g. fish, chicken, pork pieces_ were fried and held until sold.  Leftovers were held overnight at ambient temperatures in the home of the vendor or in locked compartment of the stand.  They were usually reheated early in the morning and displayed until sold.  During the interval for holding, aerobic mesophilic counts progressively increased with time from about 1,000 after cooking to between 1000,000 to 1,000,000,000/g.  The higher counts were usually associated with holding overnight.  Escherichia coli (in water, milk, and cheese samples), Bacillus cereus (in bean and rice samples) and Clostridium perfringens (in meat, chicken and bean samples) were isolated, but usually in numbers less that 1,000/g.  At the other stand, foods (e.g. beans, rice, meat and chicken) were cooked just before serving as complete meals.  There were no leftovers.  This operation was less hazardous, although there were many sanitary deficiencies.  Recommendations for prevention and control of microbial hazards (mainly reducing holding time, periodic reheating and requesting reheating just before purchasing) are given.  The need and suggestions of implementing education activities to alert and inform those concerned about hazards and preventive measures are presented

 

 

Hazards and Critical Control Points of Street-vended Chat, a Regionally Popular Food in Pakistan

Bryan FL et al J Food Protection, 55(9):708-713

 

A hazard analysis (which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of food throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of concern) was conducted of a street vendor’s operation.  Chat is a popular dish in certain areas of Pakistan.  It consists of sliced cooked potatoes, fried graham and pulse dough, and chick peas or red beans garnished with lasi (a fermented milk) and a fruit syrup.  Staphylococci reached the cooked potatoes during peeling, cutting and other handling.  These bacteria increased up to 100,ooo times while the contaminated foods were held for several hours.  Counts up to 100,000 Bacillus cereus were isolated from the cooked dough after 6 hours or longer holding period.  Large numbers (usually greater that 100,000) of coliform bacteria and aerobic mesophilic colonies (1,000,000 to 1,000,000,000) were isolated from all foods after handling and holding for several hours.  Ingestion of these food must be considered high risk unless handling of cooked items can be ke0pts to a minimum and the time of holding reduced to less than 6 hours.  Critical control points are handling after cooking and holding on display.  Health agency personnel in developing countries, vendors, and consumers of these foods need t9o be informed of the hazards and appropriate preventive measures.

Written by geraldmoy

February 3, 2012 at 2:20 pm

A Guide to Identifying Hazards and Assessing Risks Associated with Food Preparation and Storage

 

Bryan FL (1992) A Guide to Identifying Hazards and Assessing Risks Associated with Food Preparation and Storage, World Health Organization, Geneva

Explains how the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system can be used as a rational, reliable, and cost-effective method for reducing the risks that can lead to foodborne illness or food spoilage. Noting that traditional measures, such as end-product testing and the routine medical examination of food handlers, have largely failed to ensure food safety, the book concentrates on the many practical advantages of HACCP evaluations, offering detailed advice on the use of this system to identify hazards in food preparation and storage, assess related risks, and focus control procedures on these “critical” points. Throughout the book, numerous examples are used to show how the HACCP method, which concentrates on the detection and direct control of high-risk operations, can provide a greater assurance of food safety than any other approach.
The book is addressed to public health personnel with some training in food microbiology and technology. The opening chapters describe the principles of the HACCP system, explain how its action-oriented approach works in practice, and discuss its application in households, cottage industries, and street food stalls, as well as in food service and food processing establishments. The most extensive chapter provides a point-by-point explanation of the steps to follow and the tests to be performed when looking for hazards and assessing their severity and risks.

Written by geraldmoy

June 8, 2011 at 2:16 am

Food as a vehicle of transmission of cholera

Rabbani GH, Greenough WB 3rd (1999) Food as a vehicle of transmission of cholera. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res;17(1):1-9.

Abstract

Cholera has been recognized as a killer disease since earliest time. Since 1817, six pandemics have swept over the world, and the seventh one is in progress. The disease is caused by infection of the small intestine by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 and is characterized by massive acute diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration: death occurs in severe, untreated cases. Cholera is a highly contagious disease, and is transmitted primarily by ingestion of faecally-contaminated water by susceptible persons. Besides water, foods have also been recognized as an important vehicle for transmission of cholera. Foods are likely to be faecally contaminated during preparation, particularly by infected food handlers in an unhygienic environment. The physicochemical characteristics of foods that support survival and growth of V. cholerae O1 and O139 include high-moisture content, neutral or an alkaline pH, low temperature, high-organic content, and absence of other competing bacteria. Seafoods, including fish, shellfish, crabs, oysters and clams, have all been incriminated in cholera outbreaks in many countries, including the United States and Australia. Contaminated rice, millet gruel, and vegetables have also been implicated in several outbreaks. Other foods, including fruits (except sour fruits), poultry, meat, and dairy products, have the potential of transmitting cholera. To reduce the risk of food-borne transmission of cholera, it is recommended that foods should be prepared, served, and eaten in an hygienic environment, free from faecal contamination. Proper cooking, storing, and re-heating of foods before eating, and hand-washing with safe water before eating and after defaecation are important safety measures for preventing food-borne transmission of cholera.

Written by geraldmoy

June 4, 2011 at 1:37 pm